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Essay on disease: Pancreatitis diagnosis, treatments, symptoms

 

                                                                 Pancreatitis 

 What is pancreatitis? Pancreatitis is accompanied by the inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is a large gland. This gland is located behind the stomach and close to the duodenum—the first part of the small intestine. The pancreas is known for secretes digestive juices, or enzymes. These go through into the duodenum. The channel through which the digestive juices actually go is called the pancreatic duct.

Pancreatic enzymes are known for joining with bile. The liquid is produced in the liver. Then the liquid is stored in the gallbladder. The liquid is used for food dejecting. The pancreas is known for releasing the hormones insulin and glucagons. These are released into the bloodstream. The hormones are used to help the body regulate the glucose. The glucose is usually being taken from food and is used for energy production.

As usually, the digestive enzymes are being secreted by the pancreas. These do not become active until they reach the small intestine. In the case, the pancreas is inflamed, the enzymes inside it are known for attacking and damaging the tissues that produce enzymes.

Pancreatitis is divided into two groups: acute and chronic. The form can be characterized as rather serious and usually leads to a number of serious complications. One of these is bleeding, infection, and permanent tissue damage. The whole disorder can be characterized as acute and chronic. There are many signs and symptoms for each of the disease. Each of the diseases has its signs and symptoms. Also, there are a number of lab and other diagnostic tests that are used for diagnosis, interventions and treatments of the disease.

 

The gallbladder and the ducts are usually used to carry bile and other digestive enzymes. These are carried from

the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas to the small intestine are called the biliary system.

 

What is acute pancreatitis? Acute pancreatitis is  inflammation of the pancreas. The inflammation occurs suddenly and usually resolves in a few days with special treatment. Acute pancreatitis can be regarded as a life-threatening illness that is accompanied by severe complications. The disease takes away about 210,000 people in the United States. These are admitted to the hospital with acute pancreatitis. Usually pancreatitis is caused by the presence of gallstones—small, pebble-like substances made of hardened bile. These cause the inflammation in the pancreas. The inflammation is usually happens when the gallstones pass through the common bile duct.

Pancreatitis is often cased by chronic and heavy use of alcohol. This is one of the most widespread reasons of Pancreatitis. As for the acute pancreatitis, this one usually occurs within hours. Sometimes pancreatitis inflames as long as 2 days after consuming alcohol. Other causes of acute pancreatitis can be grouped in the following manner:

  1. abdominal trauma
  2.  medications
  3.  infections
  4. tumors
  5. genetic abnormalities of the pancreas

                                                      Symptoms

Acute pancreatitis usually have the following symptoms:

  1. Gradual or sudden pain in the upper abdomen. This pain sometimes extends through the back. The pain takes different forms. In many cases, the pain may be mild, then the feeling gets worse at the end of the eating. 
  2. The pain can be categorized as mild at first and worse after eating. But the pain can be described as severe at the beginning. After that it goes into constant and last for several days. It means that a person with acute pancreatitis is usually exposed to such symptoms are bad look and ill feeling.

A person that looks and feels very ill often needs immediate medical attention.

     Other symptoms may include:

  • a swollen and tender abdomen
  • nausea and vomiting
  • fever
  • a rapid pulse

Severe acute pancreatitis is often associated with dehydration and low blood pressure. As a result of effect of these factors heart, lungs, or kidneys can fail. In case bleeding occurs in the pancreas, shock and even death may follow as the final outcome.

Diagnosis While asking about a person’s medical history a person has to conduct a thorough physical examination. Under such circumstances the doctor is posed to order a blood test to assist in the diagnosis. During acute pancreatitis, the blood is reported to contain at least three times the normal amount of amylase and lipase. As for the digestive enzymes, these are often formed in the pancreas. Changes that occur in the body usually occur with such body chemicals as glucose, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate. The improvement of person’s condition leads to the fact that the chemicals that exist in human body return to the normal level. In many cases pancreatitis is often difficult to diagnose because of the deep location of the pancreas. Under such circumstances, the doctors are posed to order a number of the following tests:

Abdominal ultrasound. Sound waves are sent toward the pancreas. These are used for a handheld device such as a technician glides over the abdomen. As for the sound waves, these are reported to bounce off the pancreas, gallbladder, liver, and other organs. The echoes make electrical impulses. These are in charge of creating a picture. The picture is called a sonogram. This is presented on a video monitor. In case the gallstones are causing inflammation, the sound waves are posed to bounce off them, thus showing their real location.

Computerized tomography (CT) scan. The CT scan can be regarded as a noninvasive x ray. This device produces three-dimensional pictures of parts of the body. Under such circumstances, a person has to lie on a table that slides into a donut-shaped machine. The test is posed to show the gallstones as well as the damage that is being caused by the gallstones to the pancreas.

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The first stage is spraying a solution to numb the patient’s throat. For this objective the doctor inserts an endoscope. The endoscope has a thin, flexible, lighted tube. This is inserted down the throat, through the stomach, and into the small intestine. The second step is turning on an ultrasound attachment. The scope is helpful in producing the sound waves. These are used to create visual images of the pancreas and bile ducts.

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). MRCP is based on the use of magnetic resonance imaging. As for a noninvasive test, this is often used to produce cross-section images of parts of the body. The effect is the following - after being lightly sedated, the patient has to lie on a cylinder-like tube for the test. The second task is fulfilled by the

technician, who injects dye into the patient’s veins. This dye helps show the pancreas, gallbladder, and pancreatic and bile ducts.

Treatment Treatment for acute pancreatitis is based on the requirement that a few days’ stay in the hospital can help for intravenous (IV) fluids, antibiotics, and medication. This is often used to relieve pain. When placed under such circumstances, a person is not able neither eat nor drink.

In the case of the patient’s vomiting, a tube may be placed through the nose and into the stomach. This step is taken in order to remove fluid and air. In the case of complications, acute pancreatitis will last few days.

There are some cases when a person may require nasogastric feeding. In such a case a special liquid given in a long, thin tub. The liquid is inserted through the nose and throat and into the stomach. The whole procedure takes lasts for the period of several weeks. During this time pancreas can heal. Before leaving the hospital, the person is strongly advised to do the following things:

  1. not to smoke
  2. drink alcoholic beverages
  3. eat fatty meals

In some cases, the cause of the pancreatitis can be explained as rather clear. Still, there are cases, when more tests are needed. This is usually happens after the person is discharged and the pancreas is healed.

 

                                                   Bibliography:

Pancreatitis. NIH Publication No. 08–1596. July 2008 http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/pancreatitis/

 

 

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